The NRU reactor licence expired in 2016, however the licence has been extended to March 2018 and the reactor will go into decommissioning after that. NRU Decommissioning operations will continue for many years into the future within the scope of future operating and/or decommissioning licences issued by the CNSC.
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Part of the STI Collection . Andrew Seale and colleagues.
= Treatment of wounds
= Treatment of diseases
Diagnostic knowledge pertains to the clinical judgments and decisions made about what ails a patient. Epistemologically, the issues concerned with such knowledge are its accuracy and certainty. Central to both these concerns are clinical symptoms and signs. Clinical symptoms are subjective manifestations of the disease that the patient articulates during the medical interview, while clinical signs are objective manifestations that the physician discovers during the physical examine. What is important for the clinician is how best to quantify those signs and symptoms, and then to classify them in a robust nosology or disease taxonomy. The clinical strategy is to collect the empirical data through the physical examination and laboratory tests, to deliberate on that data, and then to draw a conclusion as to what the data means in terms of the patient’s disease condition. The strategy is fraught with questions for philosophers of medicine, from “What constitutes symptoms and signs and how they differ?” to “How best to measure and quantify the signs and to classify the diseases?” Philosophers of medicine debate the answers to these questions, but the discussion among philosophers of science over the strategy by which natural scientists investigate the natural world guides much of the debate. Thus, a clinician generates hypotheses about a patient’s disease condition, which he or she then assesses by conducting further medical tests. The result of this process is a differential diagnosis, which represents a set of hypothetical explanations for the patient’s disease condition. The clinician then narrows this set to one diagnostic hypothesis that best explains most, and hopefully all, of the relevant clinical evidence. The epistemic mechanism that accounts for this process and the factors involved in it are unclear. Philosophers of medicine especially dispute the role of tacit factors in the process. Finally, the heuristics of the process are an active area of philosophical investigation in terms of identifying rules for interpreting clinical evidence and observations.