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Certain locomotory tricks as in sidewinder snakes and dune spider are adopted to minimize body contact with the surface (Pough et al, 1999; Henschel, 1990). Endogenous rhythms of desert invertebrates further help in their survival. Some ants and arthropods of hyper-arid deserts possess raised thermal tolerance and extremely low metabolic rate. Mechanisms for water vapour uptake in desert mites and desert cockroach, Arenivaga, are quite interesting and many desert insects use discontinuous respiration. In the kangaroo rat, Dipodomys, the expired air is cooler than the inspired air, which is a device for nasal heat exchange.
Iiypodermal layers of xerophytes are thick and well developed. Ground tissue
xe·ro·phyte / ˈzi(ə)rəˌfīt / • n. Bot. a plant that needs very little water. DERIVATIVES: xe·ro·phyt·ic / ˌzi(ə)rəˈfitik / adj.
For example, in hot weather they may overheat and suffer from temperature stress . They have no specific adaptations to overcome this, but, if there is enough water in the soil to allow this, they can increase their rate of transpiration by opening their stomata, thus meaning some heat is removed by the evaporating water. However these plants can only tolerate saturated soil for a certain amount of time without a warm temperature. In dry weather they may suffer from water stress (losing more water via transpiration than can be gained from the soil). Again they have no specific adaptations to overcome this, and can only respond by closing their stomata to prevent further transpiration. This does actually have some benefits as it reduces the surface area of the leaves exposed to the atmosphere , which reduces transpiration. Prolonged periods of dehydration, however, can lead to permanent wilting, cell plasmolysis , and subsequent death . Since mesophytes prefer moist, well drained soils, most crops are mesophytes. Some examples are: corn (maize), privet , lilac , goldenrod , clover , and oxeye daisy ...