Eighteenth-century economists had divided the English economy into three sectors: agriculture, manufacturing, and commerce. Commerce included the transportation, marketing and financing of goods. The Birmingham program in Commerce included economic geography, economic history, general economics, modern languages, and accountancy.
Sites include the State Museum, which features many examples of local culture including masks and carvings. The Cultural Center on Bonny Street has a stage and auditorium for plays, dancing and a shop where tourists can purchase local handicrafts. The Azumint Blue River sports beautiful clear water with sandy beaches. Tourists can rent canoes for a ride down the river to stop at a beachside picnic site, outfitted with wooden chairs, tables and grills for a pleasant riverside barbecue.
The United Kingdom and other European countries have begun initiatives to convert all or part of their voting to electronic balloting (kiosk/DREs and/or Internet-based) systems. Europe appears to be rushing ahead to deploy computer voting technologies with serious sociological and technological downsides, such as lack of auditability, and increased opportunities for vote selling, monitoring, coercion, and denial of service attacks. During mid-October, 2002 I visited England, on the invitation of the Foundation for Information Policy Research , to meet with and brief members of the UK Cabinet and Parliament regarding this subject, and to provide technical lectures at the Royal Academy of Engineering and Cambridge University. The transcript of my comments to the Cabinet are posted * here . I also formally submitted an additional follow-up comment as part of their "In the Service of Democracy" consultation, which explains why Internet voting is not appropriate for UK democratic elections. Media coverage of my UK tour can be found over in my press section . Information on the electronic voting project in Ireland can be found at http:// . Thanks to the unflagging efforts of this group and others (including myself) who strongly protested the change from paper and pencil voting, in 2009 it was announced that "the Government has decided not to proceed with electronic voting in Ireland." Over in the Netherlands, the Dutch group "We Don't Trust Voting Computers" successfully hacked a NEDAP voting machine, turning it into a chess-playing device. On October 1, 2007, the District Court of Amsterdam decertified all NEDAP voting computers currently in use there. Further information at http:// /English .
A PhD, short for Doctor of Philosophy, may help you secure a position as a college or university professor, a researcher in a government or industrial laboratory, a consultant, or an independent practitioner. If you have the curiosity to explore a subject in depth and the tenacity to do so for many years, applying for a graduate PhD program may be an excellent step in reaching your full potential. By learning the steps necessary to complete your prerequisite education, apply to graduate schools, and complete the work, you'll be well on your way.
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