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The vials used in this study were rinsed with Water for Injection before treatment. Purchased glass bottles often contain impurities and need rinsing. Recycled glassware may have chemical and biological deposits that could distort or mask endotoxin residues present. These impurities and residues may affect the depyrogenation of the glass and should be removed prior to treatment; there is thus scope for the development of procedures to prepare glassware for depyrogenation. Undertaking measures to reduce endotoxin is an important part of microbiological control, in relation to pharmaceutical processing and for laboratories required to prepare materials or to test components. This relates to the risk of endotoxin. The pathological effects of endotoxin, when injected, are a rapid increase in core body temperature followed by extremely rapid and severe shock, often followed by death before the cause is even diagnosed .
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There is a movement among comparativists in the US and elsewhere to re-focus the discipline away from the nation-based approach with which it has previously been associated towards a cross-cultural approach that pays no heed to national borders. Works of this nature include Alamgir Hashmi 's The Commonwealth, Comparative Literature and the World , Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak 's Death of a Discipline , David Damrosch's What is World Literature? , Steven Tötösy de Zepetnek's concept of "comparative cultural studies", and Pascale Casanova's The World Republic of Letters . It remains to be seen whether this approach will prove successful given that comparative literature had its roots in nation-based thinking and much of the literature under study still concerns issues of the nation-state. Given developments in the studies of globalization and interculturalism, comparative literature, already representing a wider study than the single-language nation-state approach, may be well suited to move away from the paradigm of the nation-state. While in the West comparative literature is experiencing institutional constriction, there are signs that in many parts of the world the discipline is thriving, especially in Asia, Latin America, the Caribbean, and the Mediterranean. Current trends in Transnational studies also reflect the growing importance of post-colonial literary figures such as Giannina Braschi , J. M. Coetzee , Maryse Condé , Earl Lovelace , V. S. Naipaul , Michael Ondaatje , Wole Soyinka , Derek Walcott , and Lasana M. Sekou . For recent post-colonial studies in North America see George Elliott Clarke. Directions Home: Approaches to African-Canadian Literature . (University of Toronto Press, 2011), Joseph Pivato. Echo: Essays in Other Literatures . (Guernica Editions, 2003), and "The Sherbrooke School of Comparative Canadian Literature". ( Inquire , 2011). In the area of comparative studies of literature and the other arts see Linda Hutcheon's work on Opera and her A Theory of Adaptation . 2nd. ed. (Routledge, 2012).