What we today call Aristotelian logic , Aristotle himself would have labeled "analytics". The term "logic" he reserved to mean dialectics . Most of Aristotle's work is probably not in its original form, because it was most likely edited by students and later lecturers. The logical works of Aristotle were compiled into six books in about the early 1st century CE:
Aristotle distinguishes the disposition to feel emotions of a certain kind from virtue and vice. But such emotional dispositions may also lie at a mean between two extremes, and these are also to some extent a result of up-bringing and habituation. Two examples of such dispositions would be modesty, or a tendency to feel shame, which Aristotle discusses in NE ; and righteous indignation ( nemesis ), which is a balanced feeling of sympathetic pain concerning the undeserved pleasures and pains of others.  Exactly which habitual dispositions are virtues or vices and which only concern emotions, differs between the different works which have survived, but the basic examples are consistent, as is the basis for distinguishing them in principle.
Aristotle points out that a general account of the mean is not likely to be helpful without concrete examples (1107a28-30; cf. EE , 1221b8-9). In the course of Books II, III, and IV of the NE he discusses many virtues and their corresponding vices, arguing that in each case the virtue involves the observance of a mean between extremes. For example, in discussing andreia , courage, in Book III Aristotle suggests that it "is the observance of the mean regarding fear and confidence" (1115a6; see, however, the entire passage: 1115a6-1116a3). Aristotle does not, as some commentators have suggested, think of fear as the opposite or absence of confidence, or of confidence as the opposite or absence of fear.[ 5 ] Rather these are two distinct variables which can vary independently of one another. There are therefore several ways one can fail to hit the mean with respect to these variables. One can on a given occasion display too much fear and too much confidence; we have no special name for this kind of person, but while he puts on a show of courage, he does not endure (1115b31-33). One can display too much fear and not enough confidence; this is the coward. One can display too little fear and too much confidence; this is the rash person. Lastly, one can display too little fear and not enough confidence; this person is crazy or insensible.
© 2016 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. All rights reserved.
have a look at: http://paradigm-shift-21st-/aristotle-
All papers are for research and reference purposes only!
© 2002-2017 . All Rights Reserved. DMCA